Dongju Bae, Wook Choi, Jangwoo Kwon, and Hyunseung Choo
KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS), vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 753-775, Oct. 2010 (SCI, IF: 0.164)
Greedy forwarding is a key mechanism of geographic routing using distance as a metric. As greedy forwarding only uses 1-hop neighbor node information, it minimizes routing overhead and is highly scalable. In existing greedy forwarding schemes, a node selects a next forwarding node based only on the distance. However, the signal strength in a realistic environment reduces exponentially depending on the distance, so that by considering only the distance, it may cause a large number of data packet retransmissions. To solve this problem, many greedy forwarding schemes have been proposed. However, they do not consider the unreliable and asymmetric characteristics of wireless links and thus cause the waste of limited battery resources due to the data packet retransmissions. In this paper, we propose a reliable and energy-efficient opportunistic greedy forwarding scheme for unreliable and asymmetric links (GF-UAL). In order to further improve the energy efficiency, GF-UAL opportunistically uses the path that is expected to have the minimum energy consumption among the 1-hop and 2-hop forwarding paths within the radio range. Comprehensive simulation results show that the packet delivery rate and energy efficiency increase up to about 17% and 18%, respectively, compared with the ones in PRRxDistance greedy forwarding.