Exploring the user experience of three-dimensional virtual learning environments

Dong-Hee Shin, Frank Biocca, and Hyunseung Choo

Behaviour & Information Technology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 203-214, Sep. 2011 (SCI, IF: 1.011)


This study examines the users’ experiences with three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments to investigate the areas of development as a learning application. For the investigation, the modified technology acceptance model (TAM) is used with constructs from expectation-confirmation theory (ECT). Users’ responses to questions about cognitive perceptions and continuous use were collected and analysed with factors that were modified from TAM and ECT. Whilst the findings confirm the significant roles by users’ cognitive perceptions, the findings also shed light on the possibility of 3D application serving as an enabler of learning tools. In the extended model, the moderating effects of confirmation/satisfaction and demographics of the relationships amongst the variables were found to be significant.



immersion, presence, 3D, virtual environment, learning system


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